Gaseous emissions from the fertiliser industry include compounds of sulphur, nitrogen and fluorine. To put the pollution problem into perspective the sources and fate of these compounds in the atmosphere are reviewed, and the possible environmental hazards associated with such pollution are described. The results of published case studies of the impact of air pollution from fertiliser processes on the environment are summarized. The relationship of these results to modem trends in legislation in various countries is discussed. It is concluded that the concept of "test practicable means" as practised in the UK provides adequate protection against serious acute hazards to human health, although damage to vegetation close to the source may occur. There are, however, some long-term effects still under study which may necessitate a revision of this point of view.