Glasshouse horticulture could, until recently, be characterised by large fertiliser inputs and low nutrient use efficiencies. The government and growers organisations have reached an agreement aimed at reducing nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) losses. Regulations, with crop specific limitations in N and P use, have been implemented recently. In addition, closed growing systems are obligatory for soil-less culture. For crops in soil, re-use of drainage water is obligatory if possible. Basically, closed growing systems offer a good opportunity to reduce nutrient leaching to the environment, given perfect water quality and adequate nutrient management. In practice, a substantial loss of water and minerals still occurs, due to the accumulation of ions and consequently the need for partial flushing, but also due to leakage from the system. With open systems, i.e. substrate with free drainage, high nutrient use efficiency can also be reached by minimising drainage. For soil-grown crops, systems with irrigation and fertilisation strategies based on crop demand have the best potentials for nutrient use efficiency and reaching environmental goals. For all growing systems, further improvements are possible by reducing the N and P target values for the root environment.